In unicellular organisms, cell division is a significant process through which a unicellular organism develops into a new organism.
In multicellular organisms, the process of cell division helps in maintaining a balance between DNA and RNA contents as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic contents of the cell. Cell division also plays a necessary role in vegetative propagation of crops.
What is Cell division?
Cell division is the biological process during which a cell divides, for formation of daughter cells. The complete event is carried out in multiple steps and the total time required for a cell cycle and cell division is about 24 hours.
As per the cell theory, a cell emerges from pre-existing cells, through a process of cell division. A cell cycle is a stage through which a cell undergoes division from one phase to the next phase.
Types of Cell division
There are two distinct types of cell division:
In this type of cell division, the cells produce accurate copies of themselves. Mitosis is observed in almost all cells of the body, including muscle cells, skin, hair, eyes, etc. It is a vegetative type of cell division.
In this type of cell division, egg cells, or the sperms are produced instead of identical daughter cells. Compared to the mitosis cell division, in meiosis, each daughter cell is divided into four haploid daughter cells.
Also Refer: The Differences between mitosis and meiosis
Significance of Cell division
Cell division plays an important role in all living organisms, as it is essential for growth, repair and reproduction.
This process helps in:
- Renewing of damaged cells.
- Production of new cells from older ones.
- Maintains the total number of chromosomes.
- Provides more cells for growth and development.
- Repairs and controls damages caused to the cells.
- Also helps in survival and growth of living organisms.
- It is responsible for a definite shape, size and proper growth and development of an individual.
- In plants, mitosis helps in the formation of new parts and in repairing the damaged parts.
- Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
- Golgi apparatus
- Lysosomes and peroxisomes
- Plasma membrane
The cell undergoes a series of events that result in the duplication of cell along with the DNA. This is known as the cell cycle. Let us have a look at the events taking place in the division of cell during a cell cycle.