What happened at Chernobyl and discuss the effects of the radiation fallout. Your task in this assignment is to search the appropriate literature, and then:
– give a brief account of what happened at Chernobyl and discuss the effects of the radiation fallout on the environment;
– discuss the deterministic and stochastic effects of radiation following the acute whole-body irradiation experienced by rescuers and firemen after the Chernobyl explosion;
– briefly discuss the deterministic and stochastic effects of radiation experienced by the population living nearby Chernobyl and within the area of fallout.
– give a brief update on the situation at Fukushima, discussing the effects on the environment and population surrounding the powerplant; and the long-term possible effects on the rescue workers and nuclear power plant operators who were involved with the clean-up at Fukushima.
Radionuclides deposited most heavily on open surfaces in urban areas, such as lawns, parks, streets, roads, town squares, building roofs and walls. Under dry conditions, trees, bushes, lawns and roofs initially had the highest levels, whereas under wet conditions horizontal surfaces, such as soil plots and lawns, received the highest levels. Enhanced 137Cs concentrations were found around houses where the rain had transported the radioactive material from the roofs to the ground.
The deposition in urban areas in the nearest city of Pripyat and surrounding settlements could have initially given rise to a substantial external dose. However, this was to a large extent averted by the timely evacuation of residents. The deposition of radioactive material in other urban areas has resulted in various levels of radiation exposure to people in subsequent years and continues to this day at lower levels.
Due to wind and rain and human activities, including traffic, street washing and cleanup, surface contamination by radioactive materials has been reduced significantly in inhabited and recreational areas during 1986 and afterwards. One of the consequences of these processes has been secondary contamination of sewage systems and sludge storage.
At present, in most of the settlements subjected to radioactive contamination as a result of Chernobyl, the air dose rate above solid surfaces has returned to the background level predating the accident. But the air dose rate remains elevated above undisturbed soil in gardens and parks in some settlements of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.