UNEQUAL OPPORTUNITY OF URBAN YOUTH. Describe the nature and scope of the social problem, such as who is affected by the problem, how many individuals are affected by the problems, and is the problem one which affects other aspects of the lives of urban youth.
You are to respond to the following elements:
1. Describe the nature and scope of the social problem, such as who is affected by the problem, how many individuals are affected by the problems, and is the problem one which affects other aspects of the lives of urban youth.
2. Based on your understanding of one the social problem, describe what you believe are primary causes of the problem.
3. Describe what you believe is the role of the family and broader community in addressing the social problem.
3. Describe three social programs aimed at identifying social polices and services aimed at alleviating the problem’s impact on the group experiences of urban youth.
4. Describe recommendations you consider important to addressing the impact of the social problem on the social lives of urban youth and their families.
Research paper must be no less than eight (8) pages in length. The paper must also adhere to APA publication guidelines and include a list of references.
As a result of preexisting conditions in communities, disasters have disproportionate effects on certain subpopulations, particularly those of low socioeconomic status and other marginalized groups. Loss of meager resources, exacerbation of preexisting health conditions, and higher rates of prior trauma can lead to poor health outcomes in impoverished groups, including increased incidence of substance abuse (Cepeda et al., 2010a) and mental distress (Cepeda et al., 2010b).
Social services1 professionals act as advocates and service providers to underserved populations, enabling people to access critical goods and services and to become healthier and more self-sufficient. By ensuring access to needed resources, social services can help mitigate impacts of disasters on vulnerable populations.
Unfortunately, the social services sector has until only recently been largely excluded from preparedness and emergency management efforts (White, 2014). Events such as Hurricane Katrina that had devastating effects on vulnerable populations have demonstrated the importance of integrating social services into all other recovery activities, including but not limited to clinical care delivery, housing, economic and workforce development, and transportation.
A RAND Corporation study on human services recovery 4 years after Hurricane Katrina found that nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Louisiana suffered from a lack of state and federal focus on human recovery and received little support for long-term case management.
NGOs also reported that they were not integrated as partners in recovery planning and received little guidance on the implementation of human recovery plans (Chandra and Acosta, 2009). Yet successful human recovery depends on vertical integration and cross-sector coordination, collaboration, and communication—facilitated by technology and ongoing interagency relationships.
This chapter examines the impacts of disasters on the social services sector, the role the sector plays in advancing health in the community and reducing disparities, and the actions that various actors within the sector can take before and after disasters to ensure that the human needs of all community members, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015.
Healthy, Resilient, and Sustainable Communities After Disasters: Strategies, Opportunities, and Planning for Recovery. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/18996.
Over the last decade, the Latin American region has made some important human development gains, mainly through the expansion of health and pensions, as well as innovative cash transfer programs. Between 2000 and 2013, income inequality fell in all countries barring Costa Rica and Honduras. While facilitated by the commodity boom, this reduction in the Gini coefficient was primarily the result of policy reforms led by broad social coalitions and political shifts (Cornia, 2010, 2014; Levy & Schady, 2013; Lopez-Calva, Lustig, & Ortiz-Juarez, 2015; Martínez Franzoni & Sánchez-Ancochea, 2014, 2016).
The return of democracy in the 1980s and 1990s and the so-called Latin American ‘pink tide’ in the noughties (with the elections of leaders from the political Left in countries such as Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador and Argentina), gave rise to an increase in public spending on education, health and other social services. Attention to the formalisation of employment and an active use of the minimum wage also contributed to reductions in the inequality of the primary distribution of income.
Many countries embarked on innovative social assistance schemes, such as conditional cash transfer programmes (CCTs) and new non-contributory pensions. The experience of Latin America over the last decad is testament to the close relationship between democracy and more inclusive political representation and improvement in social outcomes.