Attacks with Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) kill thousands every year, inflict grievous physical injuries, damage critical infrastructure, and spread fear and disruption across affected communities. IED production takes place outside government controls. So a traditional arms regulation approach — regulating governmental production, trade, and use of this weapon through a multilateral agreement — may not yield results.Instead, the focus should be on the capacity of governments to effectively bring together several policy strands for comprehensive national action.
From commercial mining, inner-city development, violent extremism, and military stockpile management, to agriculture and aviation security. A whole-of-government approach is essential for making progress in dealing with IED threats.
The international level shows a similar reality of fragmentation. Organizations across many sectors have mandates and expertise that can contribute to a useful set of IED mitigation measures. There is not one IED forum, nor should there be. Instead, it is essential to invest in coordination and information exchange.
Whereas the work of law enforcement officials 1 is a social service of great importance and there is, therefore, a need to maintain and, whenever necessary, to improve the working conditions and status of these officials,
Whereas a threat to the life and safety of law enforcement officials must be seen as a threat to the stability of society as a whole,
Whereas law enforcement officials have a vital role in the protection of the right to life, liberty and security of the person, as guaranteed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,
Whereas the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners provide for the circumstances in which prison officials may use force in the course of their duties,
Whereas article 3 of the Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials provides that law enforcement officials may use force only when strictly necessary and to the extent required for the performance of their duty,
Whereas the preparatory meeting for the Seventh United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, held at Varenna, Italy, agreed on elements to be considered in the course of further work on restraints on the use of force and firearms by law enforcement officials,
Whereas the Seventh Congress, in its resolution 14, inter alia , emphasizes that the use of force and firearms by law enforcement officials should be commensurate with due respect for human rights,
Whereas the Economic and Social Council, in its resolution 1986/10, section IX, of 21 May 1986, invited Member States to pay particular attention in the implementation of the Code to the use of force and firearms by law enforcement officials, and the General Assembly, in its resolution 41/149 of 4 December 1986, inter alia , welcomed this recommendation made by the Council,
Whereas it is appropriate that, with due regard to their personal safety, consideration be given to the role of law enforcement officials in relation to the administration of justice, to the protection of the right to life, liberty and security of the person, to their responsibility to maintain public safety and social peace and to the importance of their qualifications, training and conduct,
The basic principles set forth below, which have been formulated to assist Member States in their task of ensuring and promoting the proper role of law enforcement officials, should be taken into account and respected by Governments within the framework of their national legislation and practice, and be brought to the attention of law enforcement officials as well as other persons, such as judges, prosecutors, lawyers, members of the executive branch and the legislature, and the public.