Discuss three different interpretations of Masaccios fresco Tribute Money in the context of the Petrine cycle of frescos in the Brancacci Chapel, in the Piazza del Carmine: 1. As commemorating the Treaty between Florence and Mamluk Egypt
Discuss three different interpretations of Masaccios fresco Tribute Money in the context of the Petrine cycle of frescos in the Brancacci Chapel, in the Piazza del Carmine:
1. As commemorating the Treaty between Florence and Mamluk Egypt
2. as a reflection or commentary on the relation of Church and State, or Peter’s Primacy;
3. as reflection of a Christian escatalogy elaborated by St. Augustine. Please discuss the significance or consequences of each of these interpretative schemes for a political economy/economic policy.
IntroductionThe aim of this chapter is to present a brief overview of the trends in mod-ern Arabic scholarship on the history of the Mamluk period. It begins in the nineteenth century – when historical writing gradually became academic and relied on the methodologies of historical research – and continues for a period of a century and half, during which time history departments and professional historical societies appeared throughout the Arab world.It is perhaps not surprising that Egypt produced the largest number of stud-ies on the Mamluk period out of all of the Arabic-speaking countries, since it was the center of the Mamluk state.
The universities in Bilād al-Shām and the Ḥijāz, regions which were also subject to Mamluk rule, occupy second place in terms of their interest in this period. They are followed by those countries whose universities employed Egyptian academics who specialized in Mamluk studies. The most notable of these is Kuwait, where two of the most prominent Egyptian historians of the Mamluks worked for a long time in the national uni-versity.
Researchers from the Maghrib have mostly focused on the history of relations between their region and the Mamluk state. They have particularly distinguished themselves in the field of “Khaldunian” studies.I will combine three different approaches in this study of Arabic historical scholarship on the Mamluk period: the first of these is a chronological sur-vey of the field, the second is discussion of some of the prominent scholars who have shaped the field, and the third is a consideration of the problems and themes that have occupied the attention of researchers.
In addition this paper will look at the contributions to the study of Mamluk history in related disciplines such as archeology and archival studies, as well as some philosoph-ical, sociological, literary, and linguistic scholarship concerning the Mamluk period, and studies which were produced by independent scholars who oper-ated outside of the academic system.
The BeginningsModern education began in Egypt during the first half of the nineteenth century under Muḥammad ʿAlī Bāshā as part of his state-building endeavor. However, the schools that he founded and the student missions that he sent to Europe were focused mainly on the practical, applied disciplines such as medicine, engineering, agriculture, translation, and administration. History was offered as a subject of study only in some of the new schools.
1 In 1872 Dār al-ʿUlūm was founded as the first school of higher studies devoted to the humanities.
2 Despite the early beginning of modern education in Egypt, his-torical writing remained influenced by the medieval style. We may consider Rifāʿa al-Ṭahṭāwī (1801–73) and ʿAlī Bāshā Mubārak (1824–93) to represent the beginning of the transition from traditional historical writing, which followed the style of the classical works, to modern academic historical writing.Al-Ṭahṭāwī discussed the Mamluks in a number of his writings. In his book Manāhij al-Albābal-Miṣriyya fī Manāhij al-Ādābal-ʿAṣriyya which was pub-lished in 1869, he made negative references to the Mamluks and criticized their rule.
3 Perhaps he was influenced by the position of Muḥammad ʿAlī Bāshāagainst the Mamluks and by the views of the French expedition. Some pages in his book Al-Murshidal-Amīn li al-Banāt wa al-Banīnare devoted to a discus-sion of the reign of Shajar al-Durr and her establishment of the Mamluk state.
4He wrote a study on the history of Birkat al-Azbakiyya (the Azbakiyya Lake)
which was established by the Mamluks.
5 In the context of his discussions on various historical and legal matters he often makes references to affairs which date back to the Mamluk period.
6ʿA lī Mubārak devoted 67 pages in the first part of his famous book Al-Khiṭaṭal-Tawfīqiyyaal-Jadīda li Miṣr al-Qāhira, wa Mudunihā wa Bilādihā al-Qadīmawa al-Shahīra to the history of the Baḥrī and Circassian Mamluks.
7 He was influenced by the style of the medieval historians in his division of the subject and he followed the reigns of the sultans of the two Mamluk dynasties.