1. Generally how are phobias developed? They are developed through trauma experience in childhood, adolescent age and even adult trauma experience
1. Generally how are phobias developed? They are developed through trauma experience in childhood, adolescent age and even adult trauma experience.
2. What is PTSD? Post Traumatic Stress Disorder caused by by stressful life event stressful life experience such as witnessing or experiencing any sort of violence emotional, sexual physical in childhood, adolescent age and even adult trauma experience, followed by intense emotional reactions as well as physical. People will have flashbacks and nightmares and vivid dreams.
3. How does conditioning affect behavior? It is used to affect behavior, to encourage or reinforce positive behavior and weaken negative one
4. What are the differences in reinforcement and punishment? Reinforcement elicits positive behavior by adding a stimulus to elicit desired behavior whereas punishment does the opposite by reducing unwanted behavior by removing the stimulus.
5. Give examples of positive and negative punishment.Positive punishment is scolding a student adding the stimulus to remove a behavior ,in class for using a phone . Negative punishment is taking away the stimulus in this case the toy to reinforce more positive behavior.
6. positive and negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement means adding something to encourage a ore positive behavior Eg child cleans up and gets a new toy while negative reinforcement is removing something to increase behavior for example using noisy beeping sound when seatbelt is not applied.
7. What is the idea of latent learning? Hidden learning, behavior might not be apparent until needed to show
8. How do you learn by insight? Seeing into a situation
9. How is conditioning used in the classroom? In advertising? In advertising using attractive models to sell beers. In classroom associating music with social
12What does the term “social dilemma” mean? Individual benefit but leading to depletion
What does the term “common dilemma” mean? Individual selfish interest that lead to negative effect on the whole group.Eg the use of natural resources
Specific phobias are an overwhelming and unreasonable fear of objects or situations that pose little real danger but provoke anxiety and avoidance. Unlike the brief anxiety you may feel when giving a speech or taking a test, specific phobias are long lasting, cause intense physical and psychological reactions, and can affect your ability to function normally at work, at school or in social settings.
Specific phobias are among the most common anxiety disorders, and not all phobias need treatment. But if a specific phobia affects your daily life, several therapies are available that can help you work through and overcome your fears — often permanently.
A specific phobia involves an intense, persistent fear of a specific object or situation that’s out of proportion to the actual risk. There are many types of phobias, and it’s not unusual to experience a specific phobia about more than one object or situation. Specific phobias can also occur along with other types of anxiety disorders.
Common categories of specific phobias are a fear of:
Each specific phobia is referred to by its own term. Examples of more common terms include acrophobia for the fear of heights and claustrophobia for the fear of confined spaces.
No matter what specific phobia you have, it’s likely to produce these types of reactions:
When to see a doctor
An unreasonable fear can be an annoyance — having to take the stairs instead of an elevator or driving the long way to work instead of taking the freeway, for instance — but it isn’t considered a specific phobia unless it seriously disrupts your life. If anxiety negatively affects functioning in work, school or social situations, talk with your doctor or a mental health professional.
Childhood fears, such as fear of the dark, of monsters or of being left alone, are common, and most children outgrow them. But if your child has a persistent, excessive fear that interferes with daily functioning at home or school, talk to your child’s doctor.
Most people can be helped with the right therapy. And therapy tends to be easier when the phobia is addressed right away rather than waiting.