From an anatomical and physiological perspective, describe the menstrual cycle. Pay special attention to the hormonal changes during the cycle. When is a woman most fertile?
1. From an anatomical and physiological perspective, describe the menstrual cycle. Pay special attention to the hormonal changes during the cycle. When is a woman most fertile? What are the physical and emotional changes that tend to occur during this cycle, and why do these occur? (15 marks)
2. Describe the biological and physiological aspects of the sexual response cycle as described by Masters and Johnson. Note: Many researchers and sexual health educators feel the response cycle is incomplete. As part of your response, include your thoughts regarding whether the response cycle accurately represents what happens to the human system during sexual activity. Also, comment on the reasons why many researchers and educators feel it is incomplete. (15 marks)
Each question may be adequately answered in 2–3 pages and may be done separately. Any additions or diagrams, charts, etc. will not be counted in the page limit.
assignment should be no more than 6–7 pages double-spaced, using 11- to 12-point font and one-inch margins.
The female reproductive system functions to produce gametes and reproductive hormones, just like the male reproductive system; however, it also has the additional task of supporting the developing fetus and delivering it to the outside world. Unlike its male counterpart, the female reproductive system is located primarily inside the pelvic cavity (Figure 184.108.40.206.1). Recall that the ovaries are the female gonads.
The gamete they produce is called an oocyte. We’ll discuss the production of oocytes in detail shortly. First, let’s look at some of the structures of the female reproductive system.
The external female reproductive structures are referred to collectively as the vulva (Figure 220.127.116.11.2). The mons pubis is a pad of fat that is located at the anterior, over the pubic bone. After puberty, it becomes covered in pubic hair. The labia majora (labia = “lips”; majora = “larger”) are folds of hair-covered skin that begin just posterior to the mons pubis.
The thinner and more pigmented labia minora (labia = “lips”; minora = “smaller”) extend medial to the labia majora. Although they naturally vary in shape and size from woman to woman, the labia minora serve to protect the female urethra and the entrance to the female reproductive tract.
The superior, anterior portions of the labia minora come together to encircle the clitoris (or glans clitoris), an organ that originates from the same cells as the glans penis and has abundant nerves that make it important in sexual sensation and orgasm. The hymen is a thin membrane that sometimes partially covers the entrance to the vagina.
An intact hymen cannot be used as an indication of “virginity”; even at birth, this is only a partial membrane, as menstrual fluid and other secretions must be able to exit the body, regardless of penile–vaginal intercourse. The vaginal opening is located between the opening of the urethra and the anus. It is flanked by outlets to the Bartholin’s glands (or greater vestibular glands).