Explore information provided by the CDC, WHO, and literary sources for a total of at least five resources. The term paper should include a summary of the research and provide the Web sites and references utilized for the research.
Explore information provided by the CDC, WHO, and literary sources for a total of at least five resources. The term paper should include a summary of the research and provide the Web sites and references utilized for the research. The term paper must be typed with 1” margins, double spacing and a 12 point Times Roman font.
The paper should also include a reference list. A minimum of five references must be utilized. The American Psychological Association format must also be utilized for the paper. The paper should be between five and seven pages in length (not including cover page, abstract, references, exhibits, etc.).
Provide substantive and relevant development of ideas • Provide logical, accurate, and sufficient level of detail •
Demonstrates an in-depth understanding of the ideas in the assigned reading and critically evaluates/responds to those ideas in an analytical, persuasive manner. • Has appropriate references 65% Organization • Creates a clearly identifiable introduction, body,
Provides unified paragraph structure–each paragraph develops only one central idea. • Utilizes APA format 20% Language • Incorporates appropriate medical terminology, avoids irrelevant and redundant words, phrases and other distracting information and has appropriate spelling;
Avoids errors in sentence boundaries such as fused sentences and sentence fragments • Avoids plagiarism; uses paraphrase and quotes skillfully 5%
Presentation • Clear and logical • Creative and interesting • Effectively relies information
A citation is a formal reference to a published or unpublished source that you consulted and obtained information from while writing your research paper. The way in which you document your sources depends on the writing style manual your professor wants you to use for the class [e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, etc.]. Note that some disciplines have their own citation method [e.g., law].
Citations document for your readers where you obtained your material, provide a means of critiquing your study based on the sources you used, and create an opportunity to obtain information about prior studies of the research problem under investigation. The act of citing sources is also your best defense against allegations of plagiarism.
Citing the works of others is important because:
NOTE: In any academic writing, you are required to identify which ideas, facts, thoughts, and concepts are yours and which are derived from the research and work of others. Whether you summarize, paraphrase, or use direct quotes, if it’s not your original idea, the source must be acknowledged.
The only possible exception to this rule is information that is considered to be a commonly known fact [e.g., George Washington was the first president of the United States]. Appreciate, however, that any “commonly known fact” is culturally constructed and shaped by social and aesthetical biases. If you are in doubt about whether or not a fact is common knowledge, protect yourself from an allegation of plagiarism and provide a supporting citation, or, ask your professor for clarification about how a factual statement should be cited.
Ballenger, Bruce P. The Curious Researcher: A Guide to Writing Research Papers. 7th edition. Boston, MA: Pearson, 2012; Citing Information.
The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Harvard Guide to Using Sources. Harvard College Writing Program. Harvard University; Newton, Philip. “Academic Integrity: A Quantitative Study of Confidence and Understanding in Students at the Start of Their Higher Education.” Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 41 (2016): 482-497; Referencing More Effectively. Academic Skills Centre. University of Canberra; Using Sources. Yale College Writing Center. Yale University.
Referencing your sources means systematically showing what information or ideas you are quoting or paraphrasing from another author’s work, and identifying where that information come from. You must cite research in order to do research, but at the same time, you must delineate what are your original thoughts and ideas and what are the thoughts and ideas of others.
Procedures used to cite sources vary among different fields of study. Always speak with your professor about what writing style for citing sources should be used for the class because it is important to fully understand the citation style to be used in your paper, and to apply it consistently.
If your professor defers and tells you to “choose whatever you want, just be consistent,” then choose the citation style you are most familiar with or that is appropriate to your major [e.g., use Chicago style if its a history class; use APA if its an education course; use MLA if it is literature or a general writing course].
1. Should I avoid referencing other people’s work?
No! If placed in the proper context, referencing other people’s research is never an indication that your work is substandard or lacks originality. In fact, the opposite is true. If you write your paper without adequate references to previous studies, you are signaling to the reader that you are not familiar with the literature about the topic, thereby, undermining the validity of your study and your credibility as a researcher.
Including references in academic writing not only defends you against allegations of plagiarism, but it is one of the most important ways to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of previous investigations about the research problem. It is the intellectual packaging around which you present your study to the reader.
2. What should I do if I find that my idea has already been examined by another researcher?
Do not ignore another author’s work because doing so will lead your readers to believe that you have either borrowed the idea or information without properly referencing it [this is plagiarism] or that you have failed to conduct a thorough review of the literature. You can acknowledge the other research by writing in the text of your paper something like this: [see also Smith, 2002], then citing the complete source in your list of references.
Use the discovery of prior research as an opportunity to demonstrate the significance of the problem being investigated and, if applicable, as a means of delineating your analysis from those of others [e.g., the prior study is ten years old and doesn’t take into account new variables]. Reacting to prior research can include: stating how your study updates previous studies on the topic, offering a new or different perspective, using a different method of data gathering, and/or describing a new set of guidelines, recommendations, best practices, or working solutions.
3. What should I do if I want to use an adapted version of someone else’s work?
You still must cite the original work. For example, maybe you are using a table of statistics from a journal article published in 1996 by author Smith, but you have altered or added new data to it. Reference the revised chart, such as, [adapted from Smith, 1996], then cite the complete source in your list of references.
You can also use other terms in order to specify the exact relationship between the original source and the version you have presented, such as, “based on Smith …,” or “summarized from Smith ….” Citing the original source helps the reader locate where the information was first presented and under what context it was used as well as to evaluate how effectively you applied it to your own research.