Ecological factors associated with adolescent pregnancy and parenting, compare and contrast the finding as it relates to Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems model in a 1-page article critique.
The Microsystem, consisting of the social-psychological variables of alcohol and drug abuse
The Mesosystem, consisting of family structure, family functioning, problems with friends, the neighborhood, and the school, as well as enacted social support
The Macrosystem, consists of household income, parents’ occupations, and race.
Adolescent pregnancy, the disproportionate number of births to unmarried adolescents, the potential disadvantages for both mothers and their children, and the commensurate costs to society have received the attention of researchers in a variety of disciplines. This article reviews and synthesizes the disparate literature on psychosocial factors associated with adolescent pregnancy using Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model. Social influences within the macrosystem, mesosystem, and microsystem are examined. Policy and service delivery recommendations are offered.
PIP: This article analyzes the literature on psychosocial factors associated with adolescent pregnancy using Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model of human development conceptualizes ecological space as operating on different levels of systems, each of which is incorporated in the next. Social influences within the macrosystem, mesosystem and microsystem that affect American adolescents aged 19 years and under were examined.
At the macrosystem level, socioeconomic status including the parental educational background and occupation, and racial and ethnic differences were observed to directly influence adolescent pregnancy. On the other hand, factors like education, family, peers and social support categorized under the mesosystem affect adolescent pregnancy outcomes.
Furthermore, at the microsystem level, which comprises increased age, psychological variables particularly, self-esteem is significantly correlated with pregnancy. In conclusion, this paper suggests that interventions must be focused at macrosystems and mesosystems rather than on the individual’s knowledge. Educational policy and efforts toward improving family functioning were among the interventions suggested in this article.
Link to the full article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10658868/