Critically discuss the differences between the tenets of the Classical or neo-Classical School and the Positivist School of criminological thought and indicate how they apply to South Africa`s criminal justice system.
Classical management theory is based on the assumption that employees work to satisfy their physical and economic needs. It does not discuss job satisfaction and other social needs. However, it emphasises specialization of labour, centralized leadership and decision-making, as well as profit maximization.
The theory came into practice in the 19th century and early 20th century. Although this theory is no longer in common use in modern society, some of its principles still remain valid, especially in small businesses.
Based on the classical management theory, three concepts contribute to an ideal workplace:
There are three layers in an organization structure. The top layer is the owners, while the middle layer is the middle management who oversees the entire operation. The third layer is supervisors who take part in the day to day operations and engage in employee’s activities and training.
The entire operation is broken down to small, task specified areas. The employees are specialized in a single operation. Thus, this concept helps to improve productivity and efficiency while avoiding multiskilled employees.
The concept describes the extrinsic motivation of employees for rewards. It will make the employees work harder; as a result, it will improve the productivity, efficiency and profit of the organization.
The neoclassical theory is an alteration and improvement of classical management theory. The theory lies in three main concepts described below.
In this concept, there is a wide span of control. Moreover, the chain of communication is shorter, and it is free from hierarchical control.
Decentralization is more close to the flat structure because of the wider span of control. Furthermore, it allows autonomy and initiative at the lower level. It also supports employees’ carrier growth in future.
It emphasizes both formal and informal organizations. The formal organisation describes the intentions of top management for the purpose of interactions among people. However, an informal organisation is necessary to find flaws of formal organisation and to satisfy the social and psychological needs of employees. Management uses the informal organisation for overcoming resistance to change on the part of workers and for a fast communication process. Thus, both formal and informal organisations are interdependent upon each other.