Define the facets of behavior modification. Compare and contrast operant and classical conditioning.
The facets of behavior modification involve four main areas: operant conditioning, classical conditioning, social learning theory, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Each area focuses on different aspects of human behavior and employs different techniques to bring about change.
Operant conditioning is a type of learning that occurs as a consequence of the consequences that follow a particular behavior. If a behavior is followed by a pleasant consequence (reinforcement), it is more likely to be repeated; if it is followed by an unpleasant consequence (punishment), it is less likely to be repeated. The most common reinforcement used in operant conditioning is positive reinforcement, which rewards a desired behavior in order to increase its frequency. Punishment, on the other hand, involves bringing an unpleasant consequence after a behavior in order to decrease its frequency.
Classical conditioning is a type of learning that occurs as a consequence of the association between two stimuli. In classical conditioning, an unconditioned stimulus (something that naturally produces a particular response) is paired with a conditioned stimulus (something that does not naturally produce the same response). After repeated pairings, the conditioned stimulus comes to evoke the same response as the unconditioned stimulus. The most famous example of classical conditioning is Ivan Pavlov’s experiments with dogs, in which he paired the sound of a bell with the act of feeding them until the dogs began to salivate at the sound of the bell alone.
Operant conditioning and classical conditioning are two types of learning that are very important to psychologists. operant conditioning is when an animal or person learns to associate a particular behavior with a particular consequence.
For example, if a rat presses a lever and gets a food pellet, it will learn to press the lever more in order to get more food pellets. Classical conditioning is when an animal or person learns to associate a particular stimulus with another stimulus.
For example, if a dog hears a bell ring before it gets fed, it will learn to associate the bell with getting food and will start to drool when it hears the bell ring. operant conditioning is more likely to result in voluntary behaviors, while classical conditioning is more likely to result in reflexive behaviors. Operant conditioning can be used to increase desired behaviors and decrease undesired behaviors, while classical conditioning can only be used to create reflexive responses.
Operant conditioning usually occurs faster than classical conditioning and can be relatively easy to reverse, while classical conditioning is often harder to reverse once it has occurred.
Finally, operant conditioning involves active learning on the part of the animal or person, while classical conditioning often involves passive learning.